10a ncac 27e .0104 SECLUSION, physical RESTRAINT AND ISOLATION TIME-OUT and protective devices used for behavioral control
(a) This Rule governs the use of restrictive interventions which shall include:
(2) physical restraint;
(3) isolation time‑out
(4) any combination thereof; and
(5) protective devices used for behavioral control.
(b) The use of restrictive interventions shall be limited to:
(1) emergency situations, in order to terminate a behavior or action in which a client is in imminent danger of abuse or injury to self or other persons or when property damage is occurring that poses imminent risk of danger of injury or harm to self or others; or
(2) as a planned measure of therapeutic treatment as specified in Paragraph (f) of this Rule.
(c) Restrictive interventions shall not be employed as a means of coercion, punishment or retaliation by staff or for the convenience of staff or due to inadequacy of staffing. Restrictive interventions shall not be used in a manner that causes harm or abuse.
(d) In accordance with Rule .0101 of Subchapter 27D, the governing body shall have policy that delineates the permissible use of restrictive interventions within a facility.
(e) Within a facility where restrictive interventions may be used, the policy and procedures shall be in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) the requirement that positive and less restrictive alternatives are considered and attempted whenever possible prior to the use of more restrictive interventions;
(2) consideration is given to the client's physical and psychological well-being before, during and after utilization of a restrictive intervention, including:
(A) review of the client's health history or the client's comprehensive health assessment conducted upon admission to a facility. The health history or comprehensive health assessment shall include the identification of pre-existing medical conditions or any disabilities and limitations that would place the client at greater risk during the use of restrictive interventions;
(B) continuous assessment and monitoring of the physical and psychological well- being of the client and the safe use of restraint throughout the duration of the restrictive intervention by staff who are physically present and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions;
(C) continuous monitoring by an individual trained in the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the client's physical and psychological well-being during the use of manual restraint; and
(D) continued monitoring by an individual trained in the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the client's physical and psychological well-being for a minimum of 30 minutes subsequent to the termination of a restrictive intervention;
(3) the process for identifying, training, assessing competence of facility employees who may authorize and implement restrictive interventions;
(4) the duties and responsibilities of responsible professionals regarding the use of restrictive interventions;
(5) the person responsible for documentation when restrictive interventions are used;
(6) the person responsible for the notification of others when restrictive interventions are used; and
(7) the person responsible for checking the client's physical and psychological well-being and assessing the possible consequences of the use of a restrictive intervention and, in such cases there shall be procedures regarding:
(A) documentation if a client has a physical disability or has had surgery that would make affected nerves and bones sensitive to injury; and
(B) the identification and documentation of alternative emergency procedures, if needed;
(8) any room used for seclusion or isolation time‑out shall meet the following criteria:
(A) the room shall be designed and constructed to ensure the health, safety and well‑being of the client;
(B) the floor space shall not be less than 50 square feet, with a ceiling height of not less than eight feet;
(C) the floor and wall coverings, as well as any contents of the room, shall have a one‑hour fire rating and shall not produce toxic fumes if burned;
(D) the walls shall be kept completely free of objects;
(E) a lighting fixture, equipped with a minimum of a 75 watt bulb, shall be mounted in the ceiling and be screened to prevent tampering by the client;
(F) one door of the room shall be equipped with a window mounted in a manner which allows inspection of the entire room;
(G) glass in any windows shall be impact resistant and shatterproof;
(H) the room temperature and ventilation shall be comparable and compatible with the rest of the facility; and
(I) in a lockable room the lock shall be interlocked with the fire alarm system so that the door automatically unlocks when the fire alarm is activated if the room is to be used for seclusion.
(9) Whenever a restrictive intervention is utilized, documentation shall be made in the client record to include, at a minimum:
(A) notation of the client's physical and psychological well-being;
(B) notation of the frequency, intensity and duration of the behavior which led to the intervention, and any precipitating circumstance contributing to the onset of the behavior;
(C) the rationale for the use of the intervention, the positive or less restrictive interventions considered and used and the inadequacy of less restrictive intervention techniques that were used;
(D) a description of the intervention and the date, time and duration of its use;
(E) a description of accompanying positive methods of intervention;
(F) a description of the debriefing and planning with the client and the legally responsible person, if applicable, for the emergency use of seclusion, physical restraint or isolation time-out to eliminate or reduce the probability of the future use of restrictive interventions;
(G) a description of the debriefing and planning with the client and the legally responsible person, if applicable, for the planned use of seclusion, physical restraint or isolation time-out, if determined to be clinically necessary; and
(H) signature and title of the facility employee who initiated, and of the employee who further authorized, the use of the intervention.
(10) The emergency use of restrictive interventions shall be limited, as follows:
(A) a facility employee approved to administer emergency interventions may employ such procedures for up to 15 minutes without further authorization;
(B) the continued use of such interventions shall be authorized only by the responsible professional or another qualified professional who is approved to use and to authorize the use of the restrictive intervention based on experience and training;
(C) the responsible professional shall meet with and conduct an assessment that includes the physical and psychological well-being of the client and write a continuation authorization as soon as possible after the time of initial employment of the intervention. If the responsible professional or a qualified professional is not immediately available to conduct an assessment of the client, but concurs that the intervention is justified after discussion with the facility employee, continuation of the intervention may be verbally authorized until an on‑site assessment of the client can be made;
(D) a verbal authorization shall not exceed three hours after the time of initial employment of the intervention; and
(E) each written order for seclusion, physical restraint or isolation time-out is limited to four hours for adult clients; two hours for children and adolescent clients ages nine to 17; or one hour for clients under the age of nine. The original order shall only be renewed in accordance with these limits or up to a total of 24 hours.
(11) The following precautions and actions shall be employed whenever a client is in:
(A) seclusion or physical restraint, including a protective device when used for the purpose or with the intent of controlling unacceptable behavior: periodic observation of the client shall occur at least every 15 minutes, or more often as necessary, to assure the safety of the client, attention shall be paid to the provision of regular meals, bathing and the use of the toilet; and such observation and attention shall be documented in the client record;
(B) isolation time-out: there shall be a facility employee in attendance with no other immediate responsibility than to monitor the client who is placed in isolation time‑out; there shall be continuous observation and verbal interaction with the client when appropriate; and such observation shall be documented in the client record; and
(C) physical restraint and may be subject to injury: a facility employee shall remain present with the client continuously.
(12) The use of a restrictive intervention shall be discontinued immediately at any indication of risk to the client's health or safety or immediately after the client gains behavioral control. If the client is unable to gain behavioral control within the time frame specified in the authorization of the intervention, a new authorization must be obtained.
(13) The written approval of the designee of the governing body shall be required when the original order for a restrictive intervention is renewed for up to a total of 24 hours in accordance with the limits specified in Item (E) of Subparagraph (e)(10) of this Rule.
(14) Standing orders or PRN orders shall not be used to authorize the use of seclusion, physical restraint or isolation timeout.
(15) The use of a restrictive intervention shall be considered a restriction of the client's rights as specified in G.S. 122C‑62(b) or (d). The documentation requirements in this Rule shall satisfy the requirements specified in G.S. 122C‑62(e) for rights restrictions.
(16) When any restrictive intervention is utilized for a client, notification of others shall occur as follows:
(A) those to be notified as soon as possible but within 24 hours of the next working day, to include:
(i) the treatment or habilitation team, or its designee, after each use of the intervention; and
(ii) a designee of the governing body; and
(B) the legally responsible person of a minor client or an incompetent adult client shall be notified immediately unless she/he has requested not to be notified.
(17) The facility shall conduct reviews and reports on any and all use of restrictive interventions, including:
(A) a regular review by a designee of the governing body, and review by the Client Rights Committee, in compliance with confidentiality rules as specified in 10A NCAC 28A;
(B) an investigation of any unusual or possibly unwarranted patterns of utilization; and
(C) documentation of the following shall be maintained on a log:
(i) name of the client;
(ii) name of the responsible professional;
(iii) date of each intervention;
(iv) time of each intervention;
(v) type of intervention;
(vi) duration of each intervention;
(vii) reason for use of the intervention;
(viii) positive and less restrictive alternatives that were used or that were considered but not used and why those alternatives were not used;
(ix) debriefing and planning conducted with the client, legally responsible person, if applicable, and staff, as specified in Parts (e)(9)(F) and (G) of this Rule, to eliminate or reduce the probability of the future use of restrictive interventions; and
(x) negative effects of the restrictive intervention, if any, on the physical and psychological well-being of the client.
(18) The facility shall collect and analyze data on the use of seclusion and physical restraint. The data collected and analyzed shall reflect for each incident:
(A) the type of procedure used and the length of time employed;
(B) alternatives considered or employed; and
(C) the effectiveness of the procedure or alternative employed.
The facility shall analyze the data on at least a quarterly basis to monitor effectiveness, determine trends and take corrective action where necessary. The facility shall make the data available to the Secretary upon request.
(19) Nothing in this Rule shall be interpreted to prohibit the use of voluntary restrictive interventions at the client's request; however, the procedures in this Rule shall apply with the exception of Subparagraph (f)(3) of this Rule.
(f) The restrictive intervention shall be considered a planned intervention and shall be included in the client's treatment/habilitation plan whenever it is used:
(1) more than four times, or for more than 40 hours, in a calendar month;
(2) in a single episode in which the original order is renewed for up to a total of 24 hours in accordance with the limit specified in Item (E) of Subparagraph (e)(10) of this Rule; or
(3) as a measure of therapeutic treatment designed to reduce dangerous, aggressive, self-injurious or undesirable behaviors to a level which will allow the use of less restrictive treatment or habilitation procedures.
(g) When a restrictive intervention is used as a planned intervention, facility policy shall specify:
(1) the requirement that a consent or approval shall be considered valid for no more than six months and that the decision to continue the specific intervention shall be based on clear and recent behavioral evidence that the intervention is having a positive impact and continues to be needed;
(2) prior to the initiation or continued use of any planned intervention, the following written notifications, consents and approvals shall be obtained and documented in the client record:
(A) approval of the plan by the responsible professional and the treatment and habilitation team, if applicable, shall be based on an assessment of the client and a review of the documentation required by Subparagraph (e)(9) and (e)(14) of this Rule if applicable;
(B) consent of the client or legally responsible person, after participation in treatment planning and after the specific intervention and the reason for it have been explained in accordance with 10A NCAC 27D .0201;
(C) notification of an advocate/client rights representative that the specific intervention has been planned for the client and the rationale for utilization of the intervention; and
(D) physician approval, after an initial medical examination, when the plan includes a specific intervention with reasonably foreseeable physical consequences. In such cases, periodic planned monitoring by a physician shall be incorporated into the plan.
(3) within 30 days of initiation of the use of a planned intervention, the Intervention Advisory Committee established in accordance with Rule .0106 of this Section, by majority vote, may recommend approval or disapproval of the plan or may abstain from making a recommendation;
(4) within any time during the use of a planned intervention, if requested, the Intervention Advisory Committee shall be given the opportunity to review the treatment/habilitation plan;
(5) if any of the persons or committees specified in Subparagraphs (h)(2) or (h)(3) of this Rule do not approve the initial use or continued use of a planned intervention, the intervention shall not be initiated or continued. Appeals regarding the resolution of any disagreement over the use of the planned intervention shall be handled in accordance with governing body policy; and
(6) documentation in the client record regarding the use of a planned intervention shall indicate:
(A) description and frequency of debriefing with the client, legally responsible person, if applicable, and staff if determined to be clinically necessary. Debriefing shall be conducted as to the level of cognitive functioning of the client;
(B) bi-monthly evaluation of the planned by the responsible professional who approved the planned intervention; and
(C) review, at least monthly, by the treatment/habilitation team that approved the planned intervention.
History Note: Authority G.S. 122C‑51; 122C‑53; 122C‑60; 122C‑62; 131E-67; 143B‑147;
Eff. February 1, 1991;
Amended Eff. January 4, 1993; January 1, 1992;
Temporary Amendment Eff. January 1, 2001;
Temporary Amendment Expired October 13, 2001;
Amended Eff. April 1, 2003;
Pursuant to G.S. 150B-21.3A, rule is necessary without substantive public interest Eff. March 26, 2017.